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However, France and Germany outlawed imported indigo in the 16th century to protect the local woad dye industry.

Indigo was the foundation of centuries-old textile traditions throughout West Africa.

The primary commercial indigo species in Asia was true indigo (Indigofera tinctoria, also known as I. A common alternative used in the relatively colder subtropical locations such as Japan's Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan is Strobilanthes cusia.

Dyer's knotweed (Polygonum tinctorum) was the most important blue dye in East Asia until the arrival of the Indigofera species from the south, which yield more dye.

Much European indigo from Asia arrived through ports in Portugal, the Netherlands, and England.

India was a primary supplier of indigo to Europe as early as the Greco-Roman era.The powder was then mixed with various other substances to produce different shades of blue and purple.Indigo is among the oldest dyes to be used for textile dyeing and printing.In the late 15th century, the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama discovered a sea route to India.This led to the establishment of direct trade with India, the Spice Islands, China, and Japan.In Mesopotamia, a neo-Babylonian cuneiform tablet of the seventh century BC gives a recipe for the dyeing of wool, where lapis-colored wool (uqnatu) is produced by repeated immersion and airing of the cloth. The Romans used indigo as a pigment for painting and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes.